بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

REPORTED SPEECH

1. Tenses


Direct
->
Indirect
Present
->
Past tense
Present continuous
->
Past continuous
Past tense
->
Past perfect
Present perfect
->
Past perfect




2. Adverb of place



Direct
->
Indirect
This
->
That
Here
->
There
There
->
There

3. Adverb of time

 
Direct
->
Indirect
Now
->
Then
Tomorrow
->
The following day/the day after
Yesterday
->
The previous day/the day before
Last
->
The ___ before/the previous ___
Next
->
The ___ after/the following ___


4. Subject

 
Direct
->
Indirect
I
->
He/she/my
She
->
Her
He
->
His
You
->
Your




A. Statement



Direct
->
Indirect
He, “I am happy.”
->
He said that he was happy.
She, “I go to school everyday.”
->
She said that she went to school everyday.
Tom, “My father was at home yesterday.”
->
Tom said that his father had been at home the previous day.
Mary, “I went to Jakarta last week.”
->
She said that she had gone to Jakarta the week before.
He, “I don’t like apple.”
->
He said that he didn’t like apple.
She, “I can drive.”
->
She said that she could drive.


B. Questions

 
Direct
->
Indirect
He, “Are you happy?”
->
He asked me if I was happy.
She, “Do you like apple?”
->
She asked me if I liked apple.
He, “Can you drive?”
->
He asked me whether I could drive.
He, “What is your name?”
->
He asked me what my name was.
She, “Where do you live?”
->
She asked me where I lived.
Tom, “Why do you love me?”
->
Tom asked me why I loved him.

Note:
For to-be/auxiliary/modals, use if/whether.
For what/where/when/why/who/how, use what/where/when/why/who/how.


C. Imperative

Direct
->
Indirect
He, “Please come in!”
->
He told me to come in.
She, “Can you open the door, please?”
->
She told me to open the door.
He, “Be quiet!”
->
He told me to be quiet.
She, “Don’t cheat!”
->
She told me not to cheat.
He, “Don’t touch me.”
->
He told me not to touch him.
 

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